The Role of Solvent in Chemical Reactions

A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another. While going under chemical reaction a substance is changed into one or more substances. It introduces the concept of electron exchange. A reaction can be an exothermic reaction or endothermic reaction. The substances involved in chemical reaction are called reactants and reagents. flotation reagent

Majority of the chemical reactions are usually performed in the solutions. Solvents play a vital role in occurrence of chemical reactions. It solvent’s both the reagent and the reactant so that they can dissolve. Solvents act as a mode of controlling the temperature in exothermic and endothermic reactions. In exothermic reactions, they provide a control over excess heat produced during the reaction by absorbing it. It is important to select the most appropriate solvent so as to get most effective results. A good solvent should be able to meet all the necessary standards such as it should be an inert to all the reaction conditions, the boiling point of the solvent should be appropriate, at the end of the reaction, there should not be any difficulty in its removal, it should dissolve the reagents and reactants.

One criterion, which should be taken into consideration before a reaction takes place that the reactant is polar or no polar in nature, because non polar reactants are dissolved in non polar solvents and polar reactants are dissolved in polar solvents only. Polarity of a solvent depends upon following measures.

• Dipole moment

• Dielectric constant

• Miscibility with water

Solvents are categorised into three categories on the basis of the polarity as polar protic, dipolar aprotic and non-polar. In a chemical reaction, if the component are more polar than reactants then the polar solvent would accelerate the reaction.


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